Dairy practice

Cattle Housing: Modern Farming Methods

Living place or house of cattle is simply known as cattle housing. Good housing is required for raising cattle. Because suitable housing is needed for keeping the cattle safe from storm, rain, sun, hot temperature, excessive cold climate and other adverse weather conditions. The cattle also need to be kept inside the house if you have not sufficient amount of grazing place. So you must have to make a good house for your animals. You can make cattle housing or mini dairy farm by using proper plan and your local available facilities. This will ensure more profit by investing little capital. Do the followings while making house for your cattle.

  • The selected place for housing will be higher than other places surrounding the house, so that you can easily remove rain water and other materials.
  • Soil of the selected place will be fertile and enriched with sand and must have to be dry always.
  • Ensure the entrance of sufficient air and light inside the house. Because sunlight helps to dry the house and help to prevent germs or virus.
  • South faced houses are very comfortable for the cattle.
  • It will be better if the houses are not surrounded by many trees.
  • Don’t let the house to damp anyhow.
  • Make a proper drainage system inside the cattle house, so that you can easily remove excreta and trash. Excreta and trash are suitable place for mosquito, flies and other parasites or virus and your cattle can get affected by various types of diseases easily.
  • You can make a simple cattle house by using bamboo pillar, straw and roof of leaves.
  • You can also make the house by using tree pillar and with a roof of tin. In this system, you have to make a ceiling under the roof to keep the cattle free from hot temperature.
  • It will be better, if the houses are surrounded by bamboo or net fence made with strong wire.
  • Keep 5 squire miter space per cattle inside the house.
  • Keep a separate place for rearing calf.
  • Don’t make the floor of the house smooth.
  • Always clean the floor and never make it slippery.
  • Make the house in such a way so that it become a safe and suitable living place for the cattle.
  • The height of the house will be about 9 to 10 feet.
  • Always keep sufficient amount of drinking water inside the cattle housing system.
  • Keep some free space inside the house for freely movement of the animals.
  • Try to keep the house dry, neat and clean always.
  • Keep the excreta and trash of cattle in a separate place, slightly far from their house. These materials can be used as fertilizer in the crop field.
  • Make proper supply of fresh and clean water inside the cattle housing system. Also ensure a good water source for washing the cattle, house, equipment etc.

House Construction

Cattle house are made depending on weather condition, geographical position and economic condition. Cattle housing design varies from region to region. So there are no proper cattle housing design which are appropriate for rearing cattle worldwide. Farmers of different countries make different types of cattle house which are suitable for them. On an average cattle house are of two types. Open housing method and fixed cattle housing method.

Open Housing Method

In open cattle housing method, cattle are kept inside the house for whole day except milking and delivery time. But in adverse weather conditions like storm, rain, hot or cold, they are moved to a safe place. A cattle needs about 3.5 to 7 squire meter place in open cattle housing method. This type of houses are suitable for big sized calf and non milk productive cattle. Almost all types of animal can be kept in this house. Open housing is suitable for all locations throughout the world. But the design of the house can be different depending on the excessive hot or cold areas.

Fixed Housing Method

In this method the cattle are tied up with rope and the rope obstructed with a pillar. Feeding and milking process done in the same place. Try to clean the house regularly and make the house in such a way which is very comfortable for the cattle. Fixed cattle house are of two types. One row and two row cattle house.

  • One Row Cattle House: This type of houses are suitable for little number of cattle. Make the house according to the number of your cattle. A cattle needs about 165 cm standing place, 105 cm side place and 75 cm feeding pot. Make partition with iron pipe to separate the cattle from one to another. The partition pipe needs to be 90 cm long and 45 cm in height.
  • Two Row Cattle House: This type of houses are suitable for commercial cattle farming business. The animals can be kept in both face to face and opposite to each other system. In face to face system, cattle are kept in two rows faces to each other. Food pot are kept between the two cattle row. In this system the cattle need about 5.5 feet standing place and 3.5 feet place in side. In opposite to each other method, cattle are kept in two rows. Their mouth faces to outside. Keep about 4 feet place between the two row. In this method each cattle will require about 5.5 feet place.

Keep the cattle house dry and clean always. Remove the excreta from house frequently. Do this at least twice a day. If the house become unhealthy and damping, then the cattle will get affected by various types of diseases easily. So it will be better if you make concrete floor inside the cattle housing system. Don’t make the floor slippery. Make a drainage system inside the house to clean the house properly.

Dairy practice

The world’s first floating dairy farm will house 40 cows and be hurricane-resistant

A Dutch company is set to debut the world’s first floating dairy farm near Amsterdam.

A high-tech, multilevel facility will soon be floating in the water in Rotterdam, located roughly 50 miles outside of Amsterdam. Minke van Wingerden, a partner at the property development companyBeladon, told Business Insider that the 89-by-89 foot farm will produce an average of 211 gallons of milk each day.

The facility will have 40 cows, which is fairly typical for a small dairy farm in the Netherlands.

floating dairy farm

Van Wingerden and her husband, Peter van Wingerden, came up the idea after a business trip to New York City in 2012. Hurricane Sandy hit the city during the visit, flooding Manhattan and knocking out power for many residents. The storm quickly made it difficult to buy fresh produce, as thousands of food delivery trucks were unable to reach their destinations.

Beladon decided to search for a way to help cities produce food close to where residents live in order to better withstand supply chain disruptions. Eventually, the company moved forward with designs for a farm that could float on water.

The idea adds to existing innovations in urban agriculture, including rooftop and warehouse farms. Floating farms, Minke van Wingerden said, can adapt to changes in the climate and be hurricane-resistant.

“You go up and down with the tide, or the water, and it has no influence on your food production, so you can still make fresh food in the city,” she said.

The farm’s bottom level will feature machinery for processing and packaging the dairy. The cows will be on the second level, along with robots for milking. Beladon will use the third level to grow clover and grass for the cows to eat.

The farm will also recycle as much as it can, van Wingerden said. For example, the cows will be fed with various waste products from the city, such as grains left over from local breweries and by-products from mills. Beladon will also process the cows’ manure and sell it as a natural fertilizer.

After launching the Rotterdam project, van Wingerden said Beladon will work on opening more floating farms. Beyond producing dairy, the company is designing floating chicken farms and floating vertical farming greenhouses. Van Wingerden said she would like to open farms in Singapore and China soon, and the company is in talks with another Dutch city for a second farm.

She and her husband also believe that new communities should be built with food access in mind. The area by the Rotterdam harbor, for example, is on track to be filled with residential spaces and offices in the next several years, and Minke van Wingerden said food production should be at “the heart of that community.”

Rotterdam’s port authority initially had some reservations about Beladon’s farm, voicing concerns about the smell and noise. Van Wingerden said the manure will be removed quickly from the farm by robots, which will reduce any bad odor associated with the farm.

As for the cows making noise, van Wingerden said there is not much they can do.

“Some people are afraid what’s going on, but on the other hand there are also [those] who cannot wait until the first cows come in,” she said. “They are very much looking forward to see a cow here in the harbor.”

Dairy practice


The increasing human population is leading to increased land pressure. Consequently the smaller land sizes cannot support dairy cattle, making the dairy goat a better option. As a nation by promoting dairy goat’s production we will be addressing the millennium development goals of Alleviating extreme poverty and hunger. Goats are a good pathway out of poverty for smallholders. The high quality of goat’s milk addresses malnutrition at the household level.


Advantages of Rearing Dairy Goats

There are many advantages that can be realised from keeping the dairy goats. These include

  • Have a superior production capacity than a cow. A dairy cow is bigger in size and therefore requires more feeds, water, mineral salt and labour than the dairy goat
  • Can be reared in urban and peri-urban plots. This is because the faecal consistence (pellets) is easier to handle and dispose than the bulky cow dung of the dairy cattle
  • Requires relatively smaller space than a dairy cow
  • Dairy goats are much easier to convert to money than a cow
  • Dairy goats are less vulnerable to diseases especially tick borne diseases e.g. anaplasmosis, babesiosis and is not susceptible to ECF
  • Goats are fastidious feeders as a result they are the last animals to die from drought.
  • Goats consume a wide variety of grasses, weeds and small branches of bushes and trees. They also act as scavengers consuming discarded leaves peelings and roots of vegetables, husks of corn, citrus and banana peeling and other waste plant residues that would otherwise cause pollution

Other Products

Other products include. castrates, culls, breeding stock, and skins.


Include; Hooves , manure, bones, horns, blood


  • Availability of goat rearing space.
  • High demand for goat’s milk.
  • Availability of goat’s semen at CAIS.
  • High nutritional and medicinal value of goat’s milk.
  • Highly trained personnel are available.
  • Credit facilities available.

Cultural issues

In some communities goat’s milk is not acceptable. Though this is changing with time, there is need for concerted effort from all the stakeholder to promote consumption of goat’s milk.


To support the development of goat enterprise training of farmers on Dairy goat husbandry is essential and dissemination of information on available opportunities

Dairy practice


The following is the recommended housing plan for a small scale zero grazing unit. The cubicle of a dairy cow shed has three distinct areas:

  • The resting and sleeping cubicle or compartment
  • The cattle walking or manure places
  • The cattle forage, feeding and watering place

The resting and sleeping cubicle or compartment

Each animal has its own compartment or sleeping place. Separation between compartments is done by wooden rails or posts.

The floor of the house can be constructed from ordinary soil from the farm. Soil is much more cheaper and comfortable to the animal than concrete or stones. The soil can be replaced if dirty or worn out. The floor of the sleeping place is raised 25cm above the level of walking and manuring passage.

The recommended standard width is 4ft or 120cm and standard length of 7ft or 210cm. The cubicle should not be too long or too wide or the floor will get dirty and consequently also the animals. The cubicle is of the right size if the droppings fall on the walking and manuring and not on the floor of the resting and sleeping compartment. For heifers the length and width of the cow cubicle should be reduced by moving the neck control posts towards the manuring and walking passage and by fitting another side wall into the cubicle.

Provide a roof over the resting and sleeping compartment in order to provide shade and to prevent the area from getting wet and dirty.

The cattle walking or manure places

This should be constructed solidly with concrete because the area is used heavily by animals. Mix cement, sand and ballast in the ration of 1:2:3. The floor should slope towards the end of the building where manure is stored in a pit about 3-5m away from the stable.

The feeding and watering place

Construct troughs for feeding and drinking water on the opposite side of the sleeping and resting compartment along the walking manuring passage. 2.5-3ft or 90cm long feed troughs per cow can be constructed using woods, stonesor concrete.

Construct a water trough between the cow and young stock section. Use concrete or water drum.


Top view

Side elevation

KUHN machines


The consequences, especially with a herbicide, can be costly. Apply too much and the crop may be damaged or suppressed; apply too little, and weeds may be inadequately controlled.

Using more than is necessary is also a waste of expensive product

When calibrating the boom sprayer , first carry out the necessary calculations and adjustments on a section of road. Next, test the rig on the land; wheel slippage might result in a slightly higher volume than that used on the hard road.

The difference will not be enough to be harmful, but it is worth taking into account – especially as it may vary from land to land, depending on the condition of the soil and whether it is an even, prepared land or has furrows formed into beds.

Kuhn optis boom sprayer, 600 litres

Follow these steps to carry out calibration accurately and to ensure that the tractor driver follows the correct procedure for spraying:

Step 1
Measure a 100m section of road. Decide on a suitable tractor speed for spraying by selecting the correct gear and engine speed. Use a permanent marker to mark the engine revolutions on the glass of the rev counter. In a suitable spot, mark the gear to be used.

Step 2
Bring the engine up to the correct speed and adjust the spray pressure to get the correct droplet size for the operation. Mark the spot on the gauge where the pressure needle should remain.

With a herbicide, use a flat nozzle and adjust the pressure so that the droplets are the right size: the spray should not be so fine that it drifts away. Getting this right involves both pressure and nozzle size. When checking for drift, look at the spray from the front and the back; it is easier to see the fine droplets from certain positions.

Step 3
Measure the time it takes to drive the tractor for 100m and record this in a suitable place.

Step 4
Place a measuring vessel under a nozzle and let if fill for the time it took the tractor to cover 100m.

Step 5
Multiply this volume by the number of nozzles on the boom to obtain the volume of spray mixture applied over the width of the spray boom every 100m. If the spray boom is 10m wide, you’ll have the amount of mixture applied to 1 000m² (100m x 10m). Multiply this by 10 to obtain the volume in litres applied to 1ha.

Before you spray the land, take the volume of the spray tank and calculate the area that the tank should cover. If you end up covering slightly less area due to the condition of the soil, make the new calculation and adjust the spray accordingly.

Step 6
To double-check, take the measuring vessel and walk behind the boom, collecting spray from a nozzle over the time it takes the tractor to cover 100m. Measure this volume to ensure that it conforms to your calculations.

Step 7
Check that each nozzle sprays correctly and all nozzles deliver the same amount. Inspect for damaged nozzles. Remember that nozzles wear out and deliver more mixture as a result.

Most farmers use the correct product but neglect calibration as it requires extra work. The effort is worth it, believe me!