Many dairy farmers have raised inquiries concerning the most effective practices for a profitable zero-grazing enterprise. Dairy farmers ought to perceive that zero-grazing is different from zero feeding.
Many farmers have incurred huge prices in putting in place zero-grazing enterprises however have ended up failing miserably. Influential leaders haven’t been spared either. And all this is often because of an absence of understanding of the pertinent needs for a profitable zero-grazing investment.
Zero-grazing or stall feeding is essentially confining animals in an exceedingly stall and feeding them there. There’s minimum movement of cows because they’re not allowed to graze within the fields and so the term zero grazing. Several dairy farmers in Kenya hold the zero-grazing model of farm production attributable to the various advantages accruing from it. Issues like shortage of pasture, low productivity of dairy cows, caliber fodder, prevalence of diseases and lack of cash are handled during this system of farm production.
The zero-grazing unit
Zero-grazing unit aspect elevation
The quality and amount of construction material ought to be assessed completely to work out the smallest amount potential value whereas maintaining quality of the house. Quality materials that are regionally accessible will greatly scale back prices. The cow shed should be practical, low cost and long lasting. The selection of a skilled worker is vital as a result of plenty of high-priced material may be wasted by hiring a foul skilled worker. Note that the foremost expensively engineered stable isn’t perpetually the most effective and most economical one. Farmers are advised to use recommended zero-grazing housing plans.
Improved dairy breeds
In order to extend milk production, you would like to target fewer, higher fed and higher quality animals. Stock the units with dairy cows that are bred specifically for milk yield. Vital dairy breeds of cows in Kenya for high-milk yield are Jersey, Ayrshire, Guernsey, milk cow and Sahiwal.
Maintain the farm breeds by upgrading your stock through AI exploitation tested dairy-bull semen. choosing sensible cows and culling non-playacting ones let alone sensible calf rearing for replacement stock ought to be an integral part of the system.
Adequate forage resource base
Grassland management and adaptability are the keys to the effectiveness of this method. Planning is vital to confirm there’s perpetually adequate forage accessible for the animals. Zero-grazing will offer opportunities for herd growth by increased forage utilization or through accessing land on the far side cow walking distance for grazing. Assume commercially and recognize the most forage production potential of your farm holding and therefore the potential quantity of off farm forage accessible to your herd in an exceedingly given year. This may change you to work out the most range of animals your zero-grazing enterprise can support. The quantity of forage, if obtained inside or outside the farm, is really the one most resource that determines the quantity of cows or animals which will be sustained within the unit because of.
In feeding the cows the forage to concentrate quantitative relation cannot surpass 60:40 %. A quantitative relation of 70:30 is suggested.
Forages take time to ascertain as hostile concentrates which might be purchased on demand.
Elephant (nappier) grass (penisetum puperum) grass is most well-liked because the main fodder crop as a result of it’s advantage of being comparatively simple to grow and re-grows apace when cutting. Different helpful crops or grasses are fodder maize and fodder sorghum. Opt for the foremost appropriate fodder to your section.
Replenish soil fertility by utilization of all manure on the Napier crop each two to three days. Apply four luggage of fifty kg of fertilizer NPK fertilizer (20-10-10) per acre per annum. This could additionally apply once establishing different quite fodder. Harvest the mature Napier grass when it’s mature to 60-90cm tall. The aim should be to supply the best quantity of dry matter (DM) per unit area of fodder.
Plant 0.75 – one acre of Napier grass per mature cow and her offspring. A daily intake of 75-100kg of recent grass/cow may be achieved with sensible management to give a dry matter intake of 14-16kg/day. A recent weight intake of 100kg/cow/day would be needed for 15kg DM of grass.
Become brilliant at manufacturing and preserving feed for the season to confirm that milk production is maintained at a gentle rate throughout the year. one in all the best issues is providing sensible quality feed to the herd throughout the season. Dig a silage pit to store and preserve animal feed. Learn to store grass to be used throughout the season by creating your own silage and fodder. The increased utilization of off farm fodder will provide a rise of stocking rate on the farm. You’ll be able to get or rent additional land for animal feed or purchase feed from neighbors.
Cows fed to capability on grasses alone have the potential to supply up to a most of seven kilos of milk per day. Extra milk is supported by concentrates. Keep in mind that it’s pointless to feed supplements once forage needs don’t seem to be met.
Give concentrate supplement because the main supply of energy and energy. Most farmers like giving farm meal to the cows at milking time. Supplement at a rate of one kilo for every 1.5 liters of milk the cow produces on prime of the seven kilos of milk contributed by grass. Different concentrates like edible seed cake, cotton seed cake and bran are accessible. For instance, farmers say that the employment of brewer’s waste as a feeding supplement, ad lib, will increase milk production by seven liters per day.
But the foremost vital factor is to own your ration formula right. Ration formulation could be an advanced method and any farmer cannot simply bed. You may want the talents of skilled professional to return up with the proper mixture of the feeds accessible to your cows. Invest in an exceedingly chaff-cutter to mill crop residues for feed so nothing goes to waste. Cows should have adequate feeding house, and wastage should be monitored, to confirm feed intake is maximized. Wastage ought to be but five-hitter, and refused material should be far away from the feeding space daily, as this can decompose rapidly.
Innovative dairy farmers have come back up with home-mix farm rations. An example composition of a one hundred kilo of home-mix farm ration is forty kilo flower cake, forty kilo maize grain, ten kilo sorghums, five kilo Glycine max beans and five kilo dried cassava chips. The mixture is dried and processed. Farmers who use this home-mix state that they get double as much milk from their home combine as they are doing for constant amount of purchased business dairy meal.
Mineral lick ought to be offered to the cows ad libitum within the mineral box. Water ought to be accessible throughout the day because it makes most of the milk.
Stable manure production
Manure ought to be treated rigorously to reap most get benefit from it. Manure contain high content of organic matter and minerals that improve soil fertility so forage yields and is supply of material for biogas production. Cover the manure pit to stop nitrogen losses.
One cow will produce up to twenty tons of compost per year depending on accessibility of crop residues. Twenty tons of compost contains close to eighty kilos of nitrogen, forty kilos of phosphate and ten kilos of hydroxide.
The manure made from three cows is comfortable to supply thequantity of gas required for cooking and lighting within the farm.
Dairy goat farming is on a steady rise throughout the world. Steady rise in demand Unconfirmed projections show a steady increase in demand for goat milk; up from the current 2 per cent in terms of milk consumption.
Cow milk is still and will continue to be the most consumed. As a boy I heard that goat milk talk from Okolwe my grandmother. She narrated to me that when a small breast feeding child lost the mother; goat milk was the proposed replacement. I found this indigenous knowledge to be in tandem with conventional scientific knowledge which has documented that indeed goat milk is much closer to human milk than cow milk.
Okolwe’s proposition therefore was correct. Immune booster with increased incidences of heart diseases goat milk is promising to be an alternative remedy. Studies have shown that goat milk has more beneficial fatty acids. It also has low cholesterol content compared to cow milk.
Subsequently people drinking goat milk have lower chances of getting heart problems. In addition, goat milk is relatively rich in potassium and phosphorous. Potassium reduces blood pressure by dilating or relaxing blood vessels further serving to reduce blood pressure.
Closely tied to this property is that goat milk can help cut weight while at the same time supplying the body with requisite fatty acids. Goat milk is also friendly to the gut. If you suffer from gas and a bloated stomach after taking milk – try goat milk! Goat milk has gut anti-inflammatory components in the form of an enzyme that soothes the digestive tract. Goat milk has been shown to increase absorption of iron and copper making it a curative drink for those suffering from anaemia, lactose intolerance and stomach ulcers.
With so many diseases that compromise immune systems; goat milk may be the next liquid gold. Goat milk contains a lot of selenium which is an immune booster. Stronger bones So between goat and cow milk which is the best? Studies have shown that a cup of goat milk can give you up to 40 per cent of your daily calcium and 20 per cent of daily Vitamin B requirement.
Like other milk, goat milk is rich in calcium and its intake contributes to strong bones. Now as a farmer wishing to do dairy value addition; goat milk is a good bet. It makes better cheese, butter and yoghurt due to its high and quality butterfat content. Goats are also relatively cheap and easy to keep and maintain. The animals can be kept in relatively smaller space; they consume less and don’t need as much attention as dairy cows. Goats can be kept by elderly or young people with minimal injury risks during handling.
They can be acquired cheaply and can multiply so fast. Goats have a higher twining capacity and can give birth to triplets. Dairy breeds that you can consider include the Galla, Toggenburg, Alpine and Saanen.
In order to be a successful goat farmer, there are basics you must consider or know before you start a goat farm. These include but not limited to the following:
Location:The most important consideration you must first make is location. Common goats generally survive in warm areas that are well drained. Apart from temperature, space is necessary. Goats live in groups, so individual pens are not effective. A large field is needed if you want your animals to roam freely. Freely roaming goats usually have better resistance to sickness and infection. The best locations for a goat farm are those that are far from towns because urban pollution is dangerous to animal health. Goats are known to eat a lot of grass on a daily basis. So make sure their food source is highly accessible and not too far from the rearing area.
Land requirement:Goats can be reared intensively on small acreage by using supplemental feed. If using an extensive system, 2 to 10 goats per acre is a rough guide depending on the supply of grass and brush. Goats are top down grazers and will select from weeds, leaves and grasses to meet their own requirements. They can also help to improve marginal areas encouraging re-establishment of grassy species so providing low-cost environmental management.
The type of goat breed:The type of goat breed is the next important thing to consider when you start keeping goats. Depending on your purpose, there are breeds that produce more milk while there are also those that grow quickly. You can farm both types of breeds and you will be harvesting both meat and milk. Different breeds also require different levels of care. Make your research and consult an expert so he can help you decide what will be best for your farm.
Access to a veterinarianis another important thing to consider. When starting a goat farm, you expect many of your animals to contract diseases. A veterinarian can help you in disease control and management to avoid losses. Vets can also help you diagnose diseases or recommend vitamins and supplements to keep your animals in good health especially during stressful situations such as weaning.
Health:You must keep your goats healthy and strong. Build a big barn because goats live in groups. They must also be allowed to roam, run around and have fun. If the goats are bred well, they become rarely sick and they usually produce better milk and meat. Keeping them healthy by making them happy is not a hard task. Goats are very picky with food. They don’t eat dried or soiled grass. Make sure you have enough clean, fresh grass for them so they don’t go hungry.
Housing:With a well-designed barn or shed and good management, you are sure to reap all the profit you want from goat farming.
The dairy goat’s popularity continues to increase rapidly as morepeople discover the dairy goat’s appeal, utility and productiveness. The female dairy goat is a doe; the male, a buck; the young, kids; and a castrated male, a wether. Their life span is eight to twelve years. Some of the basics to know about the care and management of dairy goats are:
Dairy goats need a year-round supply of roughage, such as pasture, browse or well-cured hay. Winter browse and pastures should be supplemented with hay. Milking, breeding and growing stock need a daily portion of legume hay, such as alfalfa. Kids and bucks need a balanced grain ration and milkers should be fed a standard dairy grain ration. Kids are milk fed until two to three months of age, but should be consuming forages such as pasture grass or hay by two weeks of age and grain within four. All dairy goats must have salt and fresh clean water. Mineral supplements are desirable.
Dairy goats have fastidious eating habits and are particular about the cleanliness of their food. Their natural curiosity may lead them to investigate newly found items by sniffing and nibbling, but they quickly refuse anything that is dirty or distasteful.
Dairy goats will graze grass pastures, but prefer to browse brushlands and a varied selection of pasture plants, including non-noxious weeds. Dairy goats seldom thrive when tethered. They may be kept in a dry lot if fed adequate roughage and allowed shade and space for exercise. Dairy goats are curious and agile and require well built fences for containment and protection from predators.
In temperate climates, one-half acre of land per milking goat should be plenty. Under arid conditions, people must guard against the danger of overgrazing. Overstocking in temperate climates is also bad for goats, since it increases reinfestation of internal parasites. Rotational pasturing is one of the successful controls.
Dairy goats are kept successfully in all climates. They do not need elaborate housing, but do require clean, dry, well ventilated, draft free shelter. Dirt pen floors are preferred over cement. At least 15 square feet of bedded area should be provided for each goat. The outside exercise lot should provide a minimum of 25 square feet of space per animal, well-drained and properly fenced. Dairy goats have a strong herd instinct and prefer the companionship of at least one other goat.
Bucks should be kept in separate quarters away from milking does.
Ideally, goats should be dehorned when they are very young. It is advisable to wait until they are 1-2 weeks of age and in good flesh to be sure they are healthy and not coming down with neonatal diarrhea. If discolored skin is fixed to the skull in two rosettes, horn buds are present. Moveable skin indicates a naturally hornless condition.
Hooves should be trimmed frequently to assure proper development of the hoof.
To check the health of goats and determine suspected illness, it is useful to know their normal physiological values. Pulse is about 83 per minute ranging from 50 to 115. Respiration is around 29 per minute with a range from 15 to 50. Body temperature is about 103.6 degrees Fahrenheit.
Keeping good weight records is important for proper feeding and medication, besides good management. Tapes can be used for estimation of weight by measuring the heart girth behind the forelegs. There also exists normal growth curve to age-weight relationships. For large breed male goats, they are in average as follows: 1 month-25 lb., 3 months-55 lb., 6 months-85 lb., 9 months-110 lb., 12 months-130 lb., 18 months-155 lb., 24 months-170 lb., 36 months-205 lb. For smaller breeds and females, these standards are less, proportionate to the lesser adult body weight.
Raising dairy goats has already been recognized as a very profitable business idea throughout the world. Because, goat milk has a great demand worldwide. Goat milk and many dairy products prepared by goats milk are very popular. Goat milk is highly nutritious and easily digestible than cow’s milk. It also has a unique taste and flavor.
Goat’s milk is also highly enriched with many necessary vitamins and mineral supplements. Along with producing milk, dairy goats also produce meat, mohair, hide, leather and manure (used as fertilizer in crop fields). As a result dairy goat farming for profit can be a great income source for the people who are interested in this business. You can sell other products and earn money if your goats produce less milk.
How to Start Dairy Goat Farming Business
The steps for starting dairy goatfarming businessare shortly described below. Follow these steps carefully.
Choosing the suitable goat breeds for your business is one of the most important factors of starting dairy goat farming business. Because, choosing right breeds according to your area plays an important role in their production. Choose those breeds for your business which are easily maintained and will produce highly in your area.
Good food always keeps the amimal healthy and productive. In case of dairy goat good feeding practices increase the milk production. You can do the feeding processes of your dairy goats in many ways. You can feed your goats forages including corn silage, haylage, hay and many types of by products like beet pulp and brewers grain. You can feed them dry hay in round bale feeders or along the feed alley. In case of ensilaged feed you can set up newer and bigger operations. You can also feed your dairy goats purchased or homemade supplementary feed with grain. Be very careful while providing supplementary feed for your goats. Ensure all nutrition elements and necessary vitamins are available in their food. Along with providing good quality food for your goats, provide them sufficient amount of fresh and clean water.
Being small sized animal goats require less place for living than cow. You can easily keep many goat in the place required for one cow. You also can keep your goats with your other livestock animals. For commercial dairy goat farming many different buildings will be very suitable for housing them.
Naturally dairy goats are fall breeders and produce kids in the spring. But by using different techniques andmodern farming methods, many dairy goat producers are kidding throughout the year. And by applying those methods producers are producing milk over the whole year. In traditional breeding system producers use bucks for breeding. But in modern system producers are applying artificial insemination to improve their genetics. For commercial dairy goat farmingartificial inseminationis very effective than using bucks for breeding purposes.
Most of the dairy goats give birth of multiple kids only once every year. And raising the kids is an intense job for the producers. Most of the dairy goat producers keep the female goats and sell the bucks after a few months. You can also keep the female kids for milk production and sell the bucks when they reach slaughter age. Feed the kids nanny for a few days after their birth and after that you can feed them cow colostrum. After that, feed the kids milk replacer with bottles, nipple pails or with automatic kid feeder. At their age of 1-2 months, you cal let them to go with their mother and have some food from the grazing place.