- Before constructing the pond, land is surveyed to find out determine its topography.
- Marking the area of proposed pond is the first step in the construction of a fish pond.
- The natural slope where the main wall is to be built should be ascertained.
- The main wall should be marked off at the lower end of the pond, where the slope is the greatest.
- The first step while designing fish ponds should be to study the soil type, topography and water supply.
- In designing the fish farm, it should be decided as to where and how many nursery, rearing and stocking ponds are to be constructed.
- In case of a fish farm constructed solely for the purpose of seed production, only nursery and rearing ponds may be constructed, with a nominal area for the brood stock ponds.
- In case of grow-out farm, more stocking ponds will be constructed to produce table size fish after stocking fingerlings.
- For a composite fish farm all three types of ponds are required and their number should be based on the intended stocking density.
- Fish ponds should be at least one surface acre in size. Ponds smaller than one acre seldom support a satisfactory fish population over many years. They usually require much more intensive fish management and may not justify the costs.
- It is important to know the exact size, maximum depth, average depth, and water volume of the pond. This information becomes useful in calculating the amount of herbicide needed for weed control and the number of fish fingerlings needed for stocking.
Different kinds of pond
Freshwater fish ponds differ according to their source of water, the way in which water can be drained from the pond, the material and method used for construction and the method of use for fish farming. Their characteristics are usually defined by the features of the landscape in which they are built.